et al.


Et al. comes from the Latin phrase meaning "and others." The abbreviation is commonly used in scientific and scholarly writing to stand in for two or more author names.

We use it to indicate and signify that more authors contributed to the original paper than are listed. The authors that are listed are the authors that we worked with to review the additional annotations and educational materials.


As you can see from the list below, almost all scientific papers are a result of collaborations among many scientists—often among many scientific fields, disciplines, and/or institutions.

Associated papers
Molecular basis for the nerve dependence of limb regeneration in an adult vertebrateHigh-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover changeCaffeine in floral nectar enhances a pollinator's memory of rewardGlobal honey bee viral landscape altered by a parasitic miteRapid evolution of a native species following invasion by a congenerOngoing drought-induced uplift in the western United StatesGenomic-scale exchange of mRNA between a parasitic plant and its hostsGreen fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expressionNeutrophils scan for activated platelets to initiate inflammationSLC24A5, a putative cation exchanger, affects pigmentation in zebrafish and humansRequirement for p53 and p21 to sustain G2 arrest after DNA damageGenetic assignment of large seizures of elephant ivory reveals Africa’s major poaching hotspotsExpansion microscopyClimate change impacts on bumblebees converge across continentsBasidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichensNew footprints from Laetoli (Tanzania) provide evidence for marked body size variation in early homininsTrophic Downgrading of Planet EarthCarrots and sticks fail to change behavior in cocaine addictionRNA editing with CRISPR-Cas13Population-level analysis of gut microbiome variationGenomic and archaeological evidence suggest a dual origin of domestic dogsEmergence of healing in the Antarctic ozone layerA bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate)Water harvesting from air with metal-organic frameworks powered by natural sunlightOptical Deconstruction of Parkinsonian Neural CircuitryMacroscale superlubricity enabled by graphene nanoscroll formationReducing the Gender Achievement Gap in College Science: A Classroom Study of Values AffirmationA beak size locus in Darwin’s finches facilitated character displacement during a drought, Primordial and recycled helium isotope signatures in the mantle transition zone, and Exceptional continental record of biotic recovery after the Cretaceous–Paleogene mass extinction